Blog Archives

What is Relevance?

Relevance is a term used to describe how something relates to something else. Two things that are alike could be considered relevant. When making a speech, the speaker might stick to a topic with relevant information.

How Did Socrates Die?

Socrates was poisoned . He was sentenced to death for not honoring the Greek deities and for corrupting the youth with his ideals. The poison was hemlock.

What was Aristotle Famous for?

Aristotle Onasis was famous for marrying the widow of the President of the United States, Jacquline Bouvier Kennedy. Aristotle the Greek was famous of his philosophy and for being the teacher of Plato who went on to teach Socrates.

What is Probable Cause?

Probable cause usually occurs after some sort of investigation or court case. For example, the EEOC may find probable cause in cases of discrimination. However, for probable cause to be found, one party that is involved in an issue had

Who was Robert Boyle?

Robert Boyle was the father and founder of modern chemistry. He was born on January 25,1627 in Lismore Castle County Cork, Ireland. In his childhood he preferred reading and studying instead of playing.

When was the Death Penalty Invented?

This is as old as the first person who told somebody important no and they punished them with death. It goes back to tribes and clans.

What does Retribution Mean?

Retribution is another word for vengence, the redress of grievances committed against the one seeking retribution. This is similar to the idea of getting someone back for something that they did to you.

What is Bad About Cloning?

Some people feel that cloning is the attempt to create life that should be left to God. They feel that although we can clone a person, we are not able to create souls. Scientists disagree.

What are Embryonic Stem Cells?

Embryonic stem cells are stem cells harvested from an embryo. Many people object to embryonic stem cell research, since it involves the destruction of embryos. Adult stem cell research is an alternative to embryonic stem cell research. You can find

What is Personal Dignity?

Personal dignity is an individual self-respect, their self-esteem and their poise. Personal dignity is pride that an individual carries with them.

What does Bureaucracy Mean?

Bureaucracy means the administrative arm of a government or political organization, which is mainly staffed by persons who are not elected to office. It also means having a system of management that involves authority in a hierarchy over a group

What is Virtue?

A virtue is a general moral goodness that one has. Someone who exhibits virtue will always do the right thing because it is in their character.

Why do Humans Exist?

I believe that humans exist to teach, love, laugh and be happy. Humans exist to make a difference in the world. We should all appreciate the chance we have to make a difference.

What is Biomedical Ethics?

Biomedical ethics is the study of what is, and should be considered, right or wrong in regards to medical treatment and biological sciences. For more information, look here:

When Did Confucius Die?

Confucius, the Chinese thinker and philosopher, died in 479 BC. His teachings and philosophy have not only influenced the Chinese, but the Japanese, Vietnamese and Koreans as well. To find more information click here:

How to Think Positive?

To think positive, start by thinking about things you enjoy and love. You can also picture in your mind the things you are grateful for.

What is Actus Reus?

Actus reus is a Latin term that is used in the practice of law. Essentially, it refers to the rotten act that takes place as part of a crime, like a murder or a theft.

What does Justified Mean?

The word justified means assured, certified, just, and entitled. Something or someone that is justified is exempt from any guilt or sanction.

What are Social Values?

Social values are certain qualities and beliefs that are shared within a specific culture or group of people. These traits can be religious, economic, political, etc.

Types of Moral Philosophy?

There are four types of moral philosophy. The types of moral philosophy that are used are applied ethics, normative ethics and metaethics.

What is Embryonic Stem Cells?

Embryonic stem cells are stem cells that are obtained from an embryo. These stem cells are obtained from eggs that have been fertilized in a lab and were never in a human body. These stem cells are used for research

Where was Confucius Born?

Confucius was born in a place called Lu, China around the year 551 B.C.. He is credited as the founder of the philosophical system that bears his name. You can find more information here:

Who is Descartes?

Rene Descartes was a French philosopher who is called the Father of Modern Philosophy. He worked on the Scientific Revolution as well as analytical geometry. He lived from 1596 until 1650. You can find more information here:

What is Postmodern?

Postmodernism is the term given to any creative expression that is in response to modernism. Postmodernism generally uses experimental and unusual formats to draw attention to the fictional nature of the work. Postmodernist heroes are generally parodies of traditional archetypes,

What Makes Art?

Great quality makes good art. When a person takes time to perfect their craft and put their all in making the art work beautiful that makes the art great to enjoy.

What is Social?

It is what we are and what we do. Humans are social beings. So, it is that which relates to our human society, its people and growth.

What is Postmodernism?

It is a term that simply means after the modern period. The early modern period begins with the English Tudor period 1500 AD and ends around 1945.

What is Philosophy in General?

Philosophy is considered to be the study or rather the contemplation of the higher ideals such as our existence, knowledge, reason and morals in in general.

What is a Hypocrite?

A hypocrite is a person who often offers advice that they themselves do not follow or go against. They are annoying sort of people who tend to boast certain virtues, morals or ethics that they then throw to the wayside

How to Win Every Argument?

Having the last word is one way to win every argument. Do you really want to win every argument? Sometimes it’s better to listen to the other side and take a break to digest what the other person is saying.

Who is a Good Leader?

A good leader is one who is able to lead by example and explanation. He or she can be assertive or not, but, they must have the ability to persuade and to ignite those who are following. An example of

Why was Slavery Good?

Slavery was good for the slave owners because they had free labor to get their crops harvested and work done around the house. This gave them more money because they did not have to pay for labor. Keeping a slave

Who is George Santayana?

George Santayana was an essayist, poet, and a novelist. He was born on december 16, 1863 in madrid, Spain; and he died on September 26, 1952 in Rome, Italy.

What is Consequentialism?

Consequentialism is the idea that the consequences of a behavior dictate whether than behavior was ethically, or morally good, or bad. Therefore, the value judgement on the end result is more significant than the process or means by which it

Who Said Knowledge is Power?

Knowledge is power is a quote by Sir Francis Bacon, it is from Religious Meditations, Of Heresies, 1597. Sir Frances Bacon was an English author, courtier and philosopher(1561-1626)

Where Did Confucianism Start?

Confuscianism began in China. It is named after Confucius, who was a scholar, teacher and political figure in that era. His approach to society and teachings in those matters were so influential that they became law in China from the

What are Ethical Issues?

Ethical issues are issues or arguments that question your moral values. Some examples include gay marraige, abortion, and capital punishment.

Who is Erasmus?

Erasmus, a Christian saint who was martyred in 303 AD, is also called Saint Elmo. He is the patron saint of sailors because it is said he kept preaching once, even after lightning struck close to where he was standing.

How to Win An Argument?

If you get into an argument with a woman, forget about winning it. Its just not going to happen. Just admit you are wrong and get to the making up part. Thats how you win the argument.

What is Ethnography?

Ethnography is a branch of anthropology. Ethnographers describe in detail small sub-sets of human societies. We might analogize an ethnographer to a biologist on a field-study.

What is Jen?

Jen is a belief that Confucius invented. This belief was that a person would always do the right thing and be concerned about the politics around you.

What are Ghost?

Boo! Ghosts are thought to be the souls of people who have died and now wander the Earth. Some are said to be nice ghosts and some are thought to be evil. If I never saw a ghost it would

What is the Definition of Time?

The definition of time is the measurement used, according to the sun, moon and the rotation of the earth, to compare durations and intervals and to sequence events. Many view time as a fundamental structure of the universe, an area

Can Computers Think for Themselves?

No, a computer can’t actually think for itself. A computer can only do what it’s programmed to do by a human. Computers must have limitations because when they can begin to think for themselves the world will no longer be

How Did Hypatia Die?

Hypatia of Alexandria was a Greek scholar and was very noted in the mathematics field. She was murdered by an angry Christian mob because of her religious beliefs.

What Did Socrates do?

Socrates was a philosopher in Greece. Socrates is given credit for being a inventor of Western philosophy. One of the students that studied with him was Plato.

Who Invented the Musical Staff?

Musical Notation was associated with music around 475-525 by Boethius a Roman philosopher. In the 12th Century a monk named Guido d’ Arezzo added staff to indicate the pitch.

When Did Cloning Begin?

Credit is given to a frog egg in 1951. There were many attempts prior to this considered accomplishment. Nature has been doing it forever.

What is a Conditional Statement?

A conditional factor would be determined by what ifs. If A were this, then B would be that. The ‘if’ part would be called the hypothesis and ‘then’ would be the conclusion.

Who was the Model for the Prince?

It is believed that the model for Machiavelli’s The Prince is Cesare Borgia. Machiavelli discusses Cesare’s virtue, and then later how his virtue falls short, and in doing so, proposes a new theory of virtue. For more information look here:

What is a Capitalist?

A capitalist is someone who is an advocate of capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system that is based on private ownership of capital.

What are Work Ethics?

Work ethic is a set of values holding that work enhances character through diligence and effort. There is a a moral benefit to work according to work ethic.

What is Grounded Theory?

Grounded theory is a research method which works in a funadamentally different way than the scientific method. A goal of grounded theory is to extrapolate hypotheses based on conceptual ideas (rather than observed data).

What does Cogito Ergo Sum Mean?

Cognito ergo sum is Latin for I think, therefore I am. The phrase was stated by Rene Descharte, the early philosopher. The idea states that since I am capable of thought, I must exist.

What is Substantive Law?

Substantive law is the written law governing the rights and obligations of those subjected to the law. These laws are different from procedural law and instead of determining what happens in civil and criminal procedures, it defines crimes, punishments and

Why is Abortion Good?

Abortion is bad or good depending on how you look at it and feel about it. Abortion can be good if the pregnancy was by rape or if the child will not be born into a household were it can

What is the Definition of Sovereignty?

Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic reign or group of people.Sovereignty is generally vested in a government.

What is a Cartesian Diver?

Cartesian diver is a science experiment. This experiment is named after Rene Descartes. This experiment is done to find out how things keep floating.

What is a Cyborg?

A cyborg is someone that is half a human and half a robot. However, they really don’t exist. It is mentioned a lot in science function movies and in cartoons though.

Should Euthanasia be Legalized?

Whether euthanasia should be legal or not is a subject that will be hotly debated for a long time. Some states are toying with the idea of making it legal and might even put it up for vote.

What is a Bureaucracy?

It is that which manages activity. It is the law in place that governs. That could be people, time and space or planets and their activity

Where do Embryonic Stem Cells Come from?

Embryonic stem cells, as one would guess, actually come from an embryo. A lot of stem cells are harvested from egg that were fertilized in vitro.

What is Confucianism?

Confucianism is a religion based on moral conduct and ethical living. It is seen more as an ethical system instead of a religion. The cores of Confucianism are ancestor worship and filial piety.

What is Ethnology?

Ethnology is an interdisciplinary form of social science that uses tenets of anthropology and sociology to analyze the culture, social structure, and physiological identities of groups of people.

What the Cause of Brain Drain?

There are a few things that causes brain drain. Lack of sleep, bad eating habits, and high stress can cause it. They say that sometimes when you are pregnant you can have brain drain.

What is the Definition of Behaviorism?

Behaviorism is a learning perspective; a behavioral psychology. It is where any physical action is regarded as a behavior. There are over a half a dozen different titles given to various structures of behaviorism.

Types of Death Penalties?

In the course of history there have been many methods of imposing the death penalty. One of the earliest methods was by stoning. This was a quite brutal method and required many people to participate. Crucifixion is also quite well

What does Art Mean?

Art means a lot of expression yourself. It could be in the form of painting, singing, dancing, playing an instrument, drawing, and similar activities. It is way of enjoying life and showing it to other people.

What is Natural Rights?

Natural rights, also known as unalienable rights, are those known as being universal and given to everyone at birth, no matter what. These right are not to be confused with legal rights.

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis?

In doing a rhetorical analysis, there are two approaches that can be utilized. One is author critique based, and the other is discussion based from the type of essay being written, such as descriptive, narrative, etc.

What does Logic Mean?

Logic is a term meaning the analytical thought process that breaks things down into easy to understand steps. Logic is usually common sense and is made up of several different processes that make up a bigger theory.

How to Write a Definition Paper?

To write a definition paper, the meaning of the word, phrase or item at hand must be carefully broken down into distinct, meaningful and concise parts.

What is Occam Razor?

Their is a theory of that God made everything and then there is the science facts that made everything. Occam’s Razor shaved it till he got more answers. Look here for more information:

What is a Pythagorean Theorem?

The Pythagorean Theorem explains the relationship between the sides of a right triangle. It says that the length of the triangle’s hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs.

Types of Essay?

There are many different kinds of essays. Some common ones are cause/effect, comparison/contrast, literary analysis, and narrative essays.

Where Did John Locke Live?

Well known philosopher John Locke grew up in a rural Tudor house in Belluton. He moved the to the market town of Pensford shortly after he was born. For more information look here:

What is Retribution?

Retribution is the act of repaying or repairing something that has been damaged, usually intentionally. A person who has broken a lock in an effort to break into a store might be ordered to pay retribution.

What is the Pythagorean Theory?

The Pythagorean theory is often a term used in math. This term is used to describe the square of the hypotenuse in a right sided triangle.

What is Neoplatonism?

Neoplatonism is the name given for a line of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd Century. It was founded by Plotinus, based on the teaching of Plato.

When Did Socrates Die?

Socrates died one day in 399 BC by poison, a recommendation he made after being found guilty 280 to 220 of refusing to recognize Gods there were recognized by the state. Strange. Glad I live in these times. For more

Where was Pythagoras Born?

Pythagoras the Greek philosopher was born in Samos, Greece. His exact birth and death were never documented. He spend his last years in southern Italy with a close band of followers who shared his fascination with numbers.

What is a Living Organism?

A living organism is anything that possesses life. Things that do not have life are considered inanimate or dead. There are many living organisms in the world.

Why do We Need Ethics?

Because some people are downright ignorant. Ethics is very important in society. It should be taught in the home growing up. You notice some people with no ethics, didn’t have a stable home. You can find more information here:

What is Rationalization?

Rationalization is to provide an explanation for an event, person, or idea that is within reason and that is acceptable. Sometimes people give rationalization for things that don’t go their way to make them feel better.

What is Scholasticism?

School or that which belongs to the school. It describes the method of early medieval and modern schools and was a system of philosophy.

What is Social Anthropology?

Social Anthropology is the study of societies and cultures. It was originally focused on what were considered savage cultures in colonial times, but now encompasses all classifications of social groupings. To find more information click here:

What is Cultural Relativity?

Cultural relativity is an idea that is usually discussed in cultural anthropology. It states that what is right or wrong is an evolved idea that is relative to culture.

Where was Plato Born?

There has been no place confirmed as to where Plato was born. Although a lot of scholars believe that he may have been born in Athens or Aegina. It seems we may never know.You can find more information here:

What does Machiavellian Mean?

Machiavellian means crafty, cunning and someone who is an opportunist. The term is sometimes used to describe politicians and the word comes from the amoral political statesman and philosopher from Florentine. To find more information click here:

What is Political Philosophy?

Political philosophy is an interdisciplinary study of the social formation of politics and how it affects different groups of people and government.

What is the Definition of Paradigm?

A paradigm is a standard pattern or model. It can be a way of thinking or a system of beliefs. A paradigm shift is sometimes important to better understand other people’s feelings. For more information look here:

What is a Pretrial Hearing?

A pretrial hearing is something that is held before the official trial. It is when charges are read and the possible sentence is explained.

What is Wrong With my Computer?

Without knowing the specifcs of the problem, it could be that you need defrag the harddrive, toss the cookies, check for a virus, make sure all the wiring is correctly connected. I suggest a trip to the computer store.

What are the Pros and Cons of Cloning?

Many of the arguments are based around superiority when cloning and non predicatability for not cloning. There is much to be considered.

What is the Fairness Doctrine?

Fairness Doctrine is a policy of United States Federal Communication Comission introduced in 1949, it required the broadcasters to represent controversial issues of public importance in a honest equitable and balanced manner.

What Did Rene Descartes Invent?

Rene Descartes was a French philosopher during the 17th century. Descartes works included the Cartesianism, Foundationalism and Doubt and Certainty.

What does Survival of the Fittest Mean?

Survival of the fittest means that the best fit will win and stay. In some reality game shows, to win you need to survive so many challenges including dealing with difficult people. In that sense, you could say selection for

Why is Human Cloning Bad?

If we believe that we are created by God, then human cloning is bad. Because according to the bible it is God who created the human beings.

What is the Death Penalty?

The death penalty, where they put prisoners to death as punishment for their committed crimes, has been different throughout the years and in the differing states. There has been the gas chamber, electrocution, death by injection, and even stoning and

When Did Andrew Wyeth Die?

Artist and painter, Andrew Wyeth, passed away January 16, 2009 at age 91. His favorite subjects were the land and people around him and many times he was referred to as ‘Painter of the People.’ Isn’t his work just the

What is Fairness?

Fairness is when all people are treated equally. This is really important in the home and work place. Children should be raised with alot of fairness.

What is a Critical Thinker?

A critical thinker is someone that thinks critically. How, these thinkers analyze any possible outcome, benefit, advantage, disadvantage of a situation. That is what makes them be critical thinkers.

Why is Plato Famous?

Plato was a brilliant writer and philosopher. He also founded the first higher learning institution in the Western world which was called the Academy in Athens.

How to Write Argumentative Essay?

It is very easy to write an argumentative essay. You need to pick a subject that you are very passionate about and argue your position.

What does Taboo Mean?

Taboo means forbidden or unacceptable by society’s standards. It can mean disapproved or frowned upon. It can also mean unthinkable or unmentionable.

What is Good About Abortion?

There isn’t too much that is good about an abortion. But sometimes it might be the best thing to do. The woman may have a health problem and is not able to carry a child to birth. If a child

What is Authoritarianism?

Authoritarianism is known as showing great favor toward discipline and enforcing strict action. This may have to do with the government or simply one’s own household rules.

Types of Qualitative Research?

Qualitative research is known to be information collected based on physical values such as quality, size, value or appearance. This is the opposite of quantitative, which is the research dealing with numbers.

What is Coherence?

Coherence means being logically arranged and connected. For example, you need to be coherent if you want to pass the communication skills exam. To find more information click here:

What is Scientific Theory?

A scientific theory is a theory based on a careful and rational examination of the facts. Also, a clear distinction needs to be made between facts and theories which interpret and correlate the facts.

Top 10 Argumentative Topics?

An argumentative essay should be on a topic you are passionate about and prepared to defend or debate. You want to choose a topic that you are truly concerned about. Look here for more information:

What does Dialogue Mean?

I know it as a play on stage where two people are talking to each other. The word dialogue is used in the theater world. Like Romeo and Juliet.

What is Cynicism?

Cynicism is a belief or group of people who reject all conventions of society, religion, manner, dress, housing, and they pursue the simple life without materialism.

What is a Social Contract?

A social contract is a way to maintain social order. When people get together to form a society there is an implied agreement that takes place – and people are giving up their liberty(or a part of their freedom) in

How Many States have Capital Punishment?

There are only thirty-four states that have capital punishment as a conviction. There are a supporters that see capital punishment as wrong.

What is Good Writing?

English, spelling, grammar, punctuation, clear sentences. A nice readable handwriting is also important. If typing just make sure to do your spellcheck.

What is Existential?

Existential means dealing with existentialism which is a theory in Philosophy. Existentialism says that people have choices and that they are responsible for the consequences of their decisions. You can find more information here:

What is Just War?

If somebody invades any point of a Nations physical homeland and the people are forced to kill in defense of what belongs to them. That is just war!

How to Write a Theory?

In order to write a theory you have to come up with an idea with sound proof and math to back it up. You must then find a scientific journal to back you up. Once your idea has been published

What is Gross Misconduct?

Gross misconduct is behaving inappropriately or not abiding by the rules. It can be a violent action that hurts a person or people. It can be stealing.

What is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer?

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a method used to create a clonial embryo. It is a method used in stem cell research. It is not used to clone human embryos. For more information, look here:

Why do I Exist?

Why anyone exists can be a bit of a difficult question to ask. Theists believe we all exist in order to be tested and found either worthy or not worthy. The other school of thought is that we were placed

What is Human Nature Ethics?

We could say that human nature ethics acts as a code when we interact with others, and when we neglect them, consequences occur. An unspoken human nature ethic is to not be overly inquisitive about other people’s personal lives.

What is Professionalism?

Professionalism means acting appropriately and in a manner that is acceptable and careful. It is completing your tasks and responsibilities on time. You can find more information here:

What is Piety?

The word piety is referred to as a virtue. In the spiritual sense, piety is used to describe someone who is devoted to their religion or spirituality.

What is a Cynic?

The term, ‘cynic’, refers to someone who is extremely negative and critical and believes that all people are motivated by selfishnessness.

Why is the Death Penalty Wrong?

There are pros and cons to the death penalty. Those that are for it say that if you kill someone you should be killed and it is less expensive than housing prisoners. Those that are against it say that taking

What is Dialectic?

Dialectic is a term used to describe how people who have different views try to persuade each other to their side. It is through dialogue that hopefully the truth will emerge.

Who was Henri Matisse?

The French artist, Henri Matisse, is remembered for his use of colors. He was also a great sculptor but preferred to paint. He was born in 1869 and died at the age of 84 in 1954.

Who is Plato?

Plato was a Greek philosopher who lived from 428 to 348 B.C. He was most noted for his ‘platonic realism’ that dealt with the existence of universals. Plato was a student of Socrates and a teacher to Aristotle. You can

Who is Bertrand Russell?

Bertrand Russell was a Biritsh philosopher who hated idealism. He founded Analytic philosophy. In 1950, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature due to his writing on freedom and other humanitarian writings.

When Did Abortions Become Legal?

The case of Roe vs Wade was decided by the Supreme Court of the United States on January 22, 1973 in favor of an unmarried pregnant woman from Texas. The court ruled that her right to privacy had been violated

What is Charle Law?

Charlie’s Law describes the direct relationship between temperature and the volume of gas. It must be used with the Kelvin temperature scale.

When was Socrates Born?

Socrates was known for being a Greek philosopher. Socrates was born in 469 BC and he passed away in 399 BC. Socrates died from being poisoned while in prison.

Why is Research Important?

Research is important because we are able to learn more about things, people, and events. In doing research, we are able to make smart decisions. You can find more information here:

When does Life Begin Pro Choice?

With the woman who CHOSE to give birth to the first child. Don’t get me wrong. I am pro life. Women have the power of choice. Simple!

What does Absolute Mean?

Absolute means certain, perfect, complete, not limited by law, finality with no possibility of change, without conditions or limitations, not capable of being violated.

What does Hedonistic Mean?

Hedonism is the idea that pleasure is the highest good, and we should do everything we can to live in a state of intense pleasure. A hedonistic person lives entirely for the joy of the moment.

Types of Animal Testing?

There are tons of tests performed on animals. There are eye testing, drug testing, toxicology testing, vivisection testing, and many more testing unmentioned to citizens due to the significant controversy of the issue.

What is Androgyny?

Androgyny is a term used to describe the toning down or removal of male or female characteristics in an attempt to create a person without a label as male or female. Often it is done to nudge equal treatment, but

What is the Definition of An Embryo?

Counting our chickens before they hatch, eh? Any multicellular animal in its beginning stages can be classified as an embryo or in embryo. Fro us mammals, this is the developmental stage prior to hatching or birth.

How do I Write An Introduction a Conclusion?

Introductions and conclusions are important in writing any papers or essays. These are basically the same as the alpha and the Omega i.e, the beginning and the end. The introduction must hold the readers interest or your paper may be

Types of Values?

Religious values, moral values, ethical values, personal values, there a wide variety of values that can be expressed. I hope this list works.

What is Environmental Justice?

Environmental Justice is known as the unfair burdens carried by groups of certain people, such as racial minorities or people of a financially disadvantaged region.

What is Applied Research?

Applied research has a practical implementation within a segment of society to solve issues, or make life easier in some way, rather than just to gain more knowledge. You can find more information here:

What Countries Allow Gay Marriage?

Countries that allow gay marriage include the Netherlands, South Africa, Canada, Belgium, Spain, Norway, and Sweden. Also on the list extends to more European countries for civil unions.

Who is Locke?

Who is Locke?, you may be asking if you are fan of the television show ‘Lost’. The fictional character John Locke on this show is very much of an enigmatic figure. However, there is real person named John Locke who

What Men Think?

Men think about all sorts of things! They’re human too! I’m sure they think about what they’re going to eat next, what they’ll do after they leave work, and even who they’ll spend some intimate time with. If you’re trying

What is the Definition of Morality?

The world morality means trying to stick to ethical guidelines. It is trying to do what is right and knowing how different it is from the wrong. You can find more information here:

What is a Legal Writ?

Legal writ is a document issued by the court giving action, authority, commanding a specific act. This document will bear the court’s official seal and signed by a judge.