Urine cytology tests are important when a Dr. needs to detect cancer of any part of the urinary tract or organs attached, like your bladder. When you urinate for the test, cells typically are discharged that may include cancerous cells if you have cancer. The Dr. will then be able to see these under a microscope which will probe him to do further testing. It can also help to rule out cancer as a cause of any problems you might be experiencing, allowing a Dr. to focus his attention elsewhere and find the cause of your issues. For more information, look at this website.