In music, dynamics refers to the changes and variations in volume. On sheet music, this is marked using letters which stand for Italian words. Pianissimo, denoted by ‘pp’ is very quiet. Piano, shown as ‘p’ is quiet. Mezzo piano or ‘mp’ is medium quiet. Mezzo forte or ‘mf’ is medium loud. Forte or ‘f’ is loud. Fortissimo or ‘ff’ is very loud. Crescendo or ‘cresc’ shows where the music should get louder. Diminuendo or ‘dim’ shows where it should get quieter.