Sodium can cause a number of problems within the human body if you consume too much of it. For example, one of the many things that too much sodium can do to the human body is cause congested heart failure. This is because the intake of too much sodium will cause the heart to work harder than usual and harder than the other organs in the body. The consumption of too much sodium may also cause the body to retain water, thus making it difficult for the body to break the chemical down. The intake of too much sodium also causes liver damage and failure as well.